Ozanam in his correspondence (Monsignor Baunard) 17

Francisco Javier Fernández ChentoFrédéric OzanamLeave a Comment

Author: Monsignor Baunard · Translator: A member of the Council of Ireland of the Society of St. Vincent de Paul. · Year of first publication: 1911 (French) – 1925 (English).
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Chapter XVI: Master and disciples

Stanislaus college — Ozanam as professor and as an examiner — Parisian conferences — Religious polemics.

Monsieur and Madame Frederic Ozanam, now domiciled in Paris, had first taken a simple flat in the street Grenelle-St.-Germain. When it was rendered uninhabitable by the heat, M. Bailly’s kindness found them a better flat with a garden in Fleurus street, near the Luxembourg. Its windows looked out on the broad and pleasing prospect of the Luxembourg avenues. Ozanam called it a palace. The house had been built originally for Murat, afterwards King of Naples. It had subsequently been used as a dwelling by Prince Cler­mont-Tonnere, after which it came into the possession of M. Bailly. He was very glad to be able to let one of the flats on the upper stories to the young couple. It was thither we saw the Sorbonne students, in an affectionate throng, accompanying Ozanam after one of his lectures.

They were not his only students. In addition to his University courses, he had undertaken three classes in Literature each week, for the senior students of Stanislaus College. The college director in 1841 arranged the matter on terms, which were honourable to the Professor and which would also be a welcome addition to his scanty income. The director was Abbé Gratry, thirty-five years of age. It would be indeed difficult to imagine two more harmonious or more sympathetic characters than these two philosophers and authors.

Ozanam’s first words to his rhetoricians had been those of mutual respect and confidence: “I shall not resort to corporal punishment. I intend to treat you as men if I find you are men. If it be otherwise, if you be unruly boys, I shall not lose my time and my trouble with you.” They took him at his word and their regard and attachment corresponded. There went forth men from that class.

Ozanam’s course in Stanislaus College was memorable. One of his sometime students, and certainly one of the most illustrious, M. Caro, afterwards Professor of Philosophy in the Sorbonne, and a member of the French Academy, will introduce us to his class:

” I remember, as if it was only yesterday, the first day that we came into the class-room. The first impression was one of curiosity, and I must say, of rather a jeering kind. Ozanam was neither handsome, elegant, nor graceful. His appearance was common-place, his manner awkward and embarrassed. Extreme short-sightedness and a tangled mass of hair, completed a rather strange ensemble. A spirit of malice in the class was however rapidly replaced by a feeling of sympathy. It was impossible to remain long insensible to an expression of kindli­ness coming direct from the heart through a face which, if somewhat heavy, was yet not without distinction. Then, a smile of beautiful refinement, and at moments, a flashing intelligence transformed the face, as if it had been suddenly illumined by a ray of light from the soul. He unbent willingly with a gaiety, with a laugh so boyish and so natural, a wit so charming and so well turned, that it was a delight to find him in one of those happy moments when he let himself go. We tempted him on; he refrained, taking refuge in the severity of duty and the seriousness of instruction. He unbent occasionally. Then you should hear him! What youth in that spirit so mature in knowledge! What refinement and frankness! Refinement and frankness: that constituted the charm of a nature which had preserved simplicity of heart with the most complete refinement of mind.”

He was capable of deep emotion even to tenderness. A pupil of his recalls the fact that he never referred without tears to Bossuet’s charming eulogium of the Duchess of Orleans: “She was gentle to­wards death!” Was it perhaps a presentiment of what was to be his own?”

Ozanam’s class benefited by those gifts. “Without being in any way pedantic, he interested everyone in his studies, winning us by reason or by imagination. He had a way of asking questions that created an impression that one had discovered what had been shown. Those pleasant and dramatic turns gave a lively interest to his lectures, and set up an amount of discussion about him, which became, with direction, a fruitful source of activity. The most barren and unimpressionable intellects were susceptible to his influence. Even the dullest students, the Boetians of the College, thought they understood without understanding, which was for them a step forward. He raised the young men in that way to his own level, praising the efforts of even the dull, provided only that they had the courage to persevere. Ozanam loved good-will.”

The instance of a young student is mentioned, who notwithstanding great industry, had remained at the bottom of the class. When Ozanam took charge of the class, he took him aside and was at great pains to make him understand. Surprised at being able to follow, moved and won by such condescension, the young boy placed in the letter-box the following touching epistle: “I promise you most faithfully that I shall show my gratitude by achieving the impossible.” He carried off a first prize in the general competitions at the close of the year. He became subsequently a member of the Institute!

During his year and a half’s Professorship in Stanislaus College Ozanam had never to correct a student. They venerated and loved him. On one occasion the beloved master came to give his lecture, suffering from a heavy cold, with his face swollen and his head bandaged. The wag of the class had the bad taste to ridicule him. He paid for his bad taste on the moment. His class mates hurled him out the door even before the Professor had time to notice the incident.

Up to then the College had done badly in the general competitions; at the close of that year the class of Rhetoric received several firsts. A large number of Ozanam’s students requested, at the same time, the favour of doing a second year’s Rhetoric under him.

No professor had ever gained that degree of rapt attention which shows itself by complete silence. It was expressed in an address to him on a feast day as follows: “As we sit at your feet each day, charmed and delighted with your erudite lectures, we fear to break the thread of your eloquent speech. Let us, if for once only, break out into applause.”

Caro writes again: “As years went on, Ozanam’s former school pupils, now University students, were his friends. I never knew a master so beloved. Young men were inevitably attracted to him, and the sympathy was mutual and loyal. Once they had come to know him, they never left him.”

In addition to Caro, who has spoken for all, we should also hear M. Heinrich, who was later the Ozanam of the Lyons Faculty, M. Nourrisson, the Christian Philosopher of Stanislaus College, of the Institute and of the College of France, for whom Ozanam was to the end a model and a source of consolation.

There was quite a distinct type of student of the early courses, in Ernest Renan, who speaks of him in his youthful essays: “I never left his lectures without feeling stronger, more determined to do big things, more courageous, and keener for the conquest of the future.” He wrote to his dear mother in Brittany: “M. Ozanam’s course of lectures is the defence and justification of all that is worthy of respect.” Later, the same man exclaimed: “Ozanam, how we love him! What a beautiful spirit!”

Another of his students, Prevost Paradol, from the Ecole Normale had passed his licentiate in Arts before Ozanam, had then become a sceptic, but had come under the charm of this splendid believer. He deplored his death. When he wished, in his melancholy pages on La Maladie et la Mort, to give an example of death transfigured by the hope of immortality, it is Ozanam who furnished it. “One does not need the refined and cultivated mind, nor the noble soul of Ozanam, to die as he died lately in our midst. The simplest of his brothers will imitate his example on that day, because they are constantly imitating it. The practised sight of the Christian does not require to be keen to contemplate the heavens from the place of death, for they are wide open for him.”

Another young graduate of the same time, the Abbé Goux from Tou­louse, a student of the Carmelite School in Paris, went to consult Ozanam on the theses which he was preparing for his Doctorate. He was received with evident pleasure. Neither dinner, which was ready waiting, nor the frequent notification to that effect which was sent into him, nor the good taste of the student, who stood up several times to go, could defeat his insistent charity: “Please sit down: I shall indeed be disappointed if you leave so soon.” The theses submitted to Ozanam were none other than Lerins au r siecle and De Divi Thomae sermonibus. That candidate for the Doctor’s Degree became Bishop of Versailles, and was pleased to refer to that instance of kind­ness and courtesy in the following terms: “I shall never forget the graciousness with which M. Ozanam received me. I have experienced courtesy from many; but with him it was pure Christian charity. I was quite unknown to him, I would not again see him, yet he treated me as a friend and a brother.”

Cardinal Lavigerie, who was also a student of the Carmelite School, wrote to Ozanam’s widow: “I am happy, Madam, to be the means of conveying to you the blessing of Leo XIII and to discharge in a poor way my debt of gratitude to the good and illustrious deceased. He did not disdain to grant me guidance and patronage in those far off days, when I faced the examination for the Doctor of Literature in Paris. I little dreamt then that the honours, which I gained with his help, were to be carried later into African deserts.”

On every week day, except on the days of his lectures, Ozanam devoted from eight to ten o’clock in the morning to his students. They crowded into his study, as if it were a Cabinet Minister’s ante­chamber. He received them graciously, discussed with them at great length what concerned them, as if he had nothing else to think about or to do. Although that tore him from the work of his pre­dilection, yet he showed neither impatience nor regret.

I cannot include in the number of Ozanam’s students the candidates for the Academic Degrees. He sat as one of the examiners several times each year. It was in those examinations, more particularly in the B.A. Degree, that his patience was sorely tried—” I am over­whelmed with examinations for the Degrees of B.A., M.A., and Doctor. It is a tiresome business to spend long days listening to answers to questions. But it is still more tiresome to interview candi­dates and their parents seeking advice and favours; the sons whom they bring with them to make familiar with my appearance; and those who come later to know the causes of failure and the best way to make good; not counting the parents who lose their temper, who defend mistranslations vigorously, crying aloud against the injustice and unreasonableness of examiners.”

He has described himself several times in his correspondence “Sitting at that blessed little green table, the Greek Professor on one side and the Mathematical on the other, between Examiners who are bored and candidates who are in difficulties, awaiting his turn to ask questions on History, Literature, Geography, of all lands and of all times. And what answers 1 Listen: ‘What Assembly preceded that of the States-General of 1789?’ The audience whisper: The notables.’ The candidate answers The notaries!’—The examiner proceeds “You are better acquainted with the history of Louis XIV’s age. What was the name of the Minister of Finance who was notorious for his mis­fortunes?’ The audience whisper ‘Fouquet.’ The candidate answers ‘Fould.’ Another informs him that Montesquieu was a great Bishop! Ozanam admits that the pen fell from his fingers.

Ozanam was severe as an examiner, particularly severe in the case of those candidates in whom he was interested, still more so in the case of ecclesiastics, on whom rested the obligation of settling a standard of knowledge. On enquiry as to the cause of failure of a young eccles­iastical student, Ozanam pointed out in detail the mistakes in composi­tion which he had made, and added with severity: “Dear Rev. Father, -1′ the habit which you wear requires, nay commands, us to be more exacting. When one aspires to the honour of the priestly state, one must not run the risk of compromising its dignity by such failure. Noblesse oblige.”

M. Maxime de Montrond relates, on the other hand, that he never, at any examination at which he assisted, allowed any attack on the Church or on religion to pass unchallenged: “On one occasion a young free-thinking Italian, a candidate for the Licentiate, had hypnotised the Board of Examiners with his charming eloquence. Ozanam’s turn for examination arrived: “Sir,” he said in an incisive voice, “I admire your ability but not your knowledge. You have not done justice to the Fathers of the Church in accusing them of having arrested the course of civilisation. You are not right in that; you would have done better on the contrary in asserting that they quickened its march.” There was general assent to that statement.

Ozanam met many of his old friends again in the Catholic Study Circle. Private meetings, called Conferences, were being organised, in which various subjects were handled by religious and scientific writers. They were listened to there better than elsewhere, with the calm and the dignity befitting intellectual matters. Ozanam accepted the invitation to preside over the Conference of Literature. Had he not been already trained for that by the Conference of History and Philosophy which he himself had, with M. Bailly’s aid, organised twenty years before in Paris? We have not the address which the President delivered to the young men. We know only this, that he exhorted the students to engage in the work of their time, the work of study. He said this: “We do not work now-a-days. Seven or eight hours a day given to the pursuit of knowledge make our friends uneasy about our miserable health. Let us however be clear, that we are not to regard ourselves as dispensed by faith from research, fatigue, or late hours. Labour, the punishment of the fall, is the law of regeneration.”,…

Again in the Catholic Circle he spoke to the young literary elite of Paris: “Take up in all seriousness, gentlemen, what our ancestors modestly termed the business of literature. Explore diligently the field of knowledge. God is at the end of all knowledge, but He wishes that we seek to find love, and He vouchsafes that we shall find Him so as not to despair. The path of knowledge is long, my dear young people, and we are only at the beginning. If it be not given to us to – see the solution, we shall at least have pointed out the goal to others, who will reach it. They will have the joy of triumph, Providence will have the glory.”

Besides the Catholic Study Circle there were other and higher meet­ings towards which Ozanam led the young men. Such were the Re­treats in preparation for the Easter Holy Communion, which Pere de Ravignan had inaugurated in Holy Week 1842, at Notre Dame. He writes to his younger brother: “Since Monday, more than six thousand men have been present each evening at the Retreat given by Pere de Ravignan. It is not possible to hear anything more elvated or more solid than his sermons, nor to find anything more splendid than the congregations . . . To-day, a general Communion of men closed the exercises. Our serried ranks filled the centre of the Church, which is twice the length of the Church of St. John in Lyons. There were present rich people and nobility covered with decorations; by their side poor people in working smocks, soldiers, students of the Ecole Normale and of the Polythecnic, and children; especially students in large numbers. The Holy Communion, given by two priests, lasted one hour. Then a magnificent Te Deum filled the Church and we parted in a state of deep emotion.”

Even after the Te Deum all was not quite finished, as a rule, for Ozanam. What his letter does not, but what his brother does tell us, is that, on leaving Notre Dame and while still filled with the pre­sence of Jesus Christ, the pious communicant did not fail, before returning home, to visit the homes of his poor families of the Con­ference. He thus returned to Our Lord, in the person of His suffering poor, the v;sit which he had just received from Him in the Holy Eucharist. During his whole life he was pleased to complete a solemn morning in this solemn way. It was the perfecting of his religious work.

The poor, charity, the Conference of St. Vincent de Paul, furnished fresh meeting-ground for the Master and his disciples. He gave a warm welcome to his young brother Charles, who had joined the Conference in Lyons and who desired, at his instance, to come to the Society in Paris: “The Society of St. Vincent de Paul, my dear brother, has in store for you, those pious and fraternal sources of joy which I have found so consoling and so numerous. I cannot help feeling very happy and very proud at seeing you enter the Conference. It constitutes a further bond between us. Let us thank Divine Providence for having made us both enter this young and growing family, which is perchance destined for the regeneration of France. It is training a band of Christian recruits for the liberal professions, for Science, for Art, for the State. You should devote yourself with joy to Associations placed under the patronage of such a saint, which have received such incredible blessings from Providence.”

On the 28th February, 1842, Ozanam, who had now been three months in Paris, had the pleasure of being present at one of the Quarterly General meetings of the Society.

There were present six hundred young men, as many as the hall would hold, “assembled,” as he expresses it, “to review what good had been done and to consider what was yet to be done.” The Honorary Secretary presented a Report of the Society. . . . Two thousand Brothers in Paris and the provinces: one thousand five hundred families helped in Paris: a Home, and a Patronage established for apprentices.. Numberless instances of spiritual aid not so obvious but more beneficent.

” But,” adds Ozanam, “the Honorary Secretary did not sufficiently emphasize the wonder of that community of faith and good works. It set out to train a new generation for the future, which would be fired by a determination to raise the moral tone of society in Science, Art, Commerce, Administration, the University, the Magistracy, the Bar; and to become better itself in order to make others better.”

Three months later, on the first Sunday in May, Ozanam received Holy Communion in the Church of St. Vincent de Paul, rue de Sevres, at the altar and before the shrine of that glorious apostle of charity. He was accompanied by deputations from twenty-five Conferences in Paris. In the Church were missionaries from distant lands, in the gallery the double and triple folds of the white bonnets of the Sisters of Charity.

In the evening Ozanam spoke, in the usual meeting-hall of the Society, on the inundations of the Rhone. The Prefect of the Department had come to an arrangement with the Archbishop, by which the Society would become the medium for the distribution of funds-in-aid in the Vaise area—the area most devastated by the floods. The Lyons’ Conferences had, in seven months, distributed up to six hundred thousand francs to the ruinedfamilies.

The Patriarch of Antioch, chairman of the meeting, an old man with white beard, raising his hands to Heaven cried out: “This then is calumniated France, this, her calumniated youth!” When he had blessed the meeting and it had disbanded, groups of friends remained here and there in the hall exchanging words of encouragement1.

Ozanam’s encouraging words were coupled with grave advice. After referring to the Report of the progress of the Society, he laid his finger on the danger: “One thing alone, Brothers, can stay our progress and undo our work, and that is the falling-away from the spirit of our early days. The pharisaical spirit, which would sound the triumph before us: a selfish regard for ourselves and for our work, which would underrate the virtue and merit of everything outside our own little circle: a piling on of needs and of good works which would weary and drive out our Brothers: a verbose philantrophy preferring words to deeds: or else, an officialdom, wnich would hamper our forward march and tie up our machinery with red-tape: all that will hinder us. Above all, we shall be destroyed if we ever forget the humility and simplicity which reigned over our first meetings, which made us love obscurity without reasoning why, and which probably won for us the favour of such happy increase. For God is pleased to bless the tiny and the inconspicuous, the mighty tree in the little seed, man in his cradle, societies in the simplicity and humility of their foundation.”

On the Sth December, 1843, the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, Ozanam, in a Report presented to the Quarterly General Meeting, raised the young Society from its humble position, pointing it out, as it were, borne in the arms of Mother Church, and cradled on her knees since its earliest days. He speaks as follows of the episcopal protection:—” We hailed it as a mark of Heaven’s favour, as a precious act of incorporation in the Church, above all as a safeguard against ourselves. God, Who disdains not the weak, deigned to grant us this favour in a degree which surpassed our hopes.”

After His Grace the Archbishop of Paris, who presided frequently at the Quarterly General Meetings, Ozanam named the Archbishops of Avignon, Cambrai, Tours, the Bishops of Constances, Tulle, St. Flour. He read letters from the Bishops of Besancon Dijon, le Mans, St. Claude, Aire, Rodez, Versailles, Bourges, Rennes, St. Brieuc, Autun, Langres, Limoges. “Brothers, our Conferences in the provinces have grown up at the portals of cathedrals, they exist in forty-five dioceses with the approbation of the ecclesiastical authority, and under the patronage of prelates who have freely opened to them their chapels, their palaces and their purses.” He mentions the Archbishop of Lyons, the Cardinal of Arras, the Bishops of Amiens, Nimes, Metz, Orleans. “The episcopacy of France holds the first place in the history of Christian civilisation. All our great achievements have been accomplished under their aegis; the most insignificant can develop under their protection.” Ozanam follows the Society to Rome, to the Vatican, and to our members kneeling at the feet of the Holy Father praying for his blessing on the young family of St. Vincent de Paul. He had been himself one of the first of such petitioners.

In his funeral oration on Ozanam, Lacordaire spoke of “privileged creatures, who came direct from the hand of God, when God joins tenderness to genius in order to enkindle the world.” It is tenderness goodness, charity, indulgence, sweetness that he admires in Ozanam, even in the fiercest of his combats “in which invincible under the protection of the buckler of truth, he moderates the strength which he feels in his sword, lest he should slay some fellow-being who might yet be converted and live.”

In the years following 1840 polemics were waged between political and religious parties. It happened even with Catholics that expressions were written and uttered which neither the justice of the cause nor the excesses of the adversaries justified. The spirit of proportion and justice in Ozanam was offended and frightened. Many thought as he did. The friend of the young men thought it his duty to sound a note of warning against violent methods which do not conduce to present truth in an inviting manner to unbelievers.

His chairmanship of the literary conference of the Catholic Circle, on a solemn occasion, provided him with his opportunity. As chair­man, he had to deliver an address at a meeting graced by the presence of Monsignor Afire, the new Archbishop. There were also present a large number of people of position, who were in sympathy with the Society and with the chairman. “Before accepting this honour,” he says himself, “I had consulted his Grace on the subject matter of my address. He insisted that I should deal with questions in which he desired to make a public pronouncement.”

The address was on The Literary Duties of Christians. He dealt with orthodoxy in literature as its foundation, its inspiration and its security. He reviewed the attack and defence of truth according to the spirit, the teaching, and the examples of the Gospel, of the apostles, and the apologists of faith. It should be regulated by the twin love of truth and charity, of pity and peace. He quoted the lines of Pascal: “God’s design, which arranges all things with sweetness and gentleness, is to implant religion in the mind through reason, and in the heart through grace. Let us commence by pitying unbelievers, for they are already unhappy enough. They must not be offended unless for their benefit; offence only does harm.” Ozanam examines the case of those who deny and those who doubt.

” We must not despair of those who deny. There is no question of discrediting, only of convincing them. Let us beware of firing their pride by insult, thereby driving them on to damn themselves, rather than unsay themselves. Whatever be the foulness or brutality of their attacks, let us give them an example of nobleness in polemics.”

“As for those who doubt—and that is much the larger number—many of them feel the sorrow of not being able to believe. They are entitled to compassion, even esteem. In the reconstruction of truth, which is the honour of our age, in the restoration of spiritual doctrine, several such have co-operated with us. We must not be ungrateful.. We have traversed half the journey together. Let us remember that it was not without their aid that we have advanced farther than they and let us stretch out a helping hand to them.”

He closed his address by begging Catholics not to compromise the recent triumphs and the hopes for the future by mistakes and quarrels “The movement for the return of souls to the true fold must be com ducted with infinite care, if it is to run its full course. We are still too far from the Promised Land to assume the airs of conquerors and masters. Let us hold on to our mountain-stocks for fear of false steps and stumbles, let us regret neither the time nor the trouble. God’s chosen people were forty years on the way; it is true that it was under the leadership of the prophet, and that he did find his resting-place. The Church of France has not finished traversing the desert, but she too has her Moses, and we shall reach the Promised Land.”

Pointed out and invited by the closing words, the Archbishop arose to say a few simple plain words in his usual way; “I have nothing to add to what you have just heard with acclamation. I should fear to detract from it, and shall confine myself to simply endorsing what has been said with all my heart. The conclusions to be drawn from the chairman’s address, are summed up and confirmed exactly in the following words of the Imitation of Christ:-

“A passionate man perverts even good into evil,
A good peaceable man turns all things to good.”

It is in fact what has just been said. I am almost afraid to translate the title of the chapter in which those lines occur Of a good peaceable man. I wish each of you to be such a man.”

It was indeed an address on peace, which was summed up in that word of peace. It was therefore with great grief that Ozanam wrote

to M. Dufieux, in June 1843: “I have just read in the Univers an article published on Ascension Day entitled, On Moderation and Zeal, in which I was described as a deserter from the Catholic struggle. That was the reply of the paper to my address, which was not in any way dir­ected at it. Apologies have been offered to me . . .”

Ozanam’s letter concludes without recrimination, by expressing the hope that “well-considered ideas and serious discussion will, please God, prevail over ill-tempered exchanges, in which the wicked would succeed better than we.”

To his friends in Lyons, who were readers of the Univers, Ozanam sent, for his justification, the text of his address with the speech of the Archbishop, which he had had printed in the Bulletin of the Catholic Circle. “ I fear lest their friendship might be offended by the account of my address: hence, I forward you the enclosed copies.”

The letter closes with these lines, written in the presence of God: ” My dear friend, help me with your prayers. Obtain for me that spirit of body and mind which all Christianity, kneeling in the solemn ceremonies of Pentecost, asks from Heaven at the moment. I hope, with the blessing of God and with your help, that I shall never fail in the fraternal mandate from my friends, to defend the inseparable interests of Religion and true Science.”

Some months later, on the 13th October, Ozanam returned to Paris, leaving his wife with her own people in Oullins, near Lyons. In a letter he appealed to her to bear witness to his many and important engagements. The loneliness caused by the absence of his wife threw into relief the favours of God, the duties and the graces of his life: “Well, my dearest, passing over in my mind the long series of events in my life from the age of fourteen, when I first felt the call to devote my life to the propagation of truth, I can state solemnly, that all the experience of my later years confirms my belief in that vocation. I know that truth has not need of me, but that it is I who have need of it. The cause of Christian knowledge and of Truth has sunk its roots deep into my heart. Since, therefore, it is threatened, since Literature is the field of battle on which the quarrel will be decided, since instruction will have a great part to play, since Paris is the one city in France, and perhaps in the world, where intellectual campaigns are decided, since Providence, through my family, through my friends, through the irresistible inspiration which I then felt, has placed me in the breach, I shall not desert it. Good, elsewhere impossible, can be accomplished here. I shall make use of the favour of the public, with which I am honoured, to further that end. I shall make it my aim to ensure the life of that movement, by grouping and directing young men in the way of good study. I shall write, so that the little which I may be able to contribute to knowledge, may not be lost in fugitive addresses.”

” It is possible that I shall gain neither honours nor fortune. But daily bread has not failed me so far, and as long as the hand of a dear and pious friend is there to share it, it will suffice.”

” But to accomplish that work industry, strength, and perseverence are necessary. The first way to get them is to ask them from God. . . I place, therefore, these and all other resolutions under the protection of Him Who creates them in me. I shall lay them at the foot of His altar. When you see me you will, I hope, find me fit to carry that work to a successful issue.”

  1. The new Conferences in Paris since 1S3,5 were in order of date of foundation: St. Merry, St. Roch, St. Nicholas-des-Champs, St. Germain-des-Pros, St. Francis Xavier des Missions, St. Severin, St. Louis d’Autin, St. Medard, St. Nicholas du Chardonnet, Notre-Dame des Victoires, St. Marguerite, Notre-Dame de l’Abbaye aux Bois, St. Jacques du Haut-Pas, St. Germain-l’Auxerrois, St, Valerie, St. Gervais, St. Vincent de Paul, St. Thomas d’Acquin, St. Pierre de Chaillot, St. Marie des Batignolles, St. Denis dti Saint-Sacrement, St­Eustache, les Quinze-Vingts, St Lambert de Vaugirard, St. Jean du College de Stanislas 4th October, 1S41. V. Origines de la Societe, p. 14 in 1541.

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